>>>>> "R" == Rich Kilmer <rich / infoether.com> writes:

R> So then, technically speaking, Object does have a "superclass" of the
R> class Class created to point to Kernel.  I do realize this is invisible

 Well, internally ruby has 2 type T_CLASS, T_ICLASS

 a singleton class has the type T_CLASS with the flag FL_SINGLETON
 an included class has the type T_ICLASS

 If you look only at the class, then an included class is an instance of
 Class like a class or a singleton class.

 In a sense, you can say that Object has a "superclass", but if you say
 this then you must say that the "superclass" of Array is Enumerable (or
 the included class) because Enumerable is included in Array.

R> to Ruby programs (as are all singleton classes), but it's there
R> nonetheless.  Correct?

 a singleton class is not invisible because this is what you access when
 you write, for example

   class << self
   end


Guy Decoux