> Let me restate, just so I'll remember.

I doubt that memorizing that will be useful.  Understanding the 
principles is much more important than the results of applying the 
principles.  Because of the circularity at the top of the ruby object 
model, applying the principles can lead to some weird results.


> I'll leave it at that for now, and try to improve my understanding
> so that I more readily make the distinction between
> _instance_ and _subclass_.
>

Animal
end

Dog < Animal
end

d = Dog.new

Dog is a subclass of Animal, and d is an instance of dog.

But you also have to remember that all objects are an instance of some 
class.  Because most things in ruby are an object, it follows that most 
things in ruby are an instance of some class.    Dog is a ruby object, 
so it must also be an instance of some class.   That class is Class:

Dog = Class.new do
  def bark
    puts 'woof'
  end
end


Now here is a question to ponder: Class is an object, just like most 
things in ruby.  So what class is Class an instance of?

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