James D. M. wrote in post #1010480:
>   [..., :Integer, :Float, :String, :Array, ..., :Rational, :Complex,
> ...]
>
> Apparently, I don't understand something.  I thought these were standard
> classes.  Why do they show up here as methods?

They are methods in the Kernel module. Method names with a capital 
initial are unusual, but allowed.

irb(main):005:0> Kernel.methods.grep(/^[A-Z]/)
=> ["Array", "Integer", "Float", "String"]
irb(main):006:0> Integer("123")
=> 123
irb(main):007:0> Integer("0123")
=> 83
irb(main):008:0> Integer("0x123")
=> 291

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