On Mar 16, 2009, at 17:12 , pete / p373.net wrote:

> So why doesn't including a module into another module affect classes
> that have already included that first module?

because including a module affects the ancestors, not the class/ 
object's method dictionary:

> >> module M; end
> => nil
> >> class X; include M; end
> => X
> >> X.ancestors
> => [X, M, Object, Kernel]