C and assembler run directly on the hardware.  Sometimes in user mode,
sometimes in kernel mode.  Sometimes with an extensive run time library,
sometimes without.

I suppose you could call virtual memory a 'VM', but few do.  And neither
C nor assembler require virtual memory underneath.

James Tucker wrote:

> Most code that you will ever write (including C or any form
> of assembler to run under an operating system (any of the 6 most
> common OSes), runs inside a virtual machine).
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