```#
## Use Fixnum#[] - Bit Reference
#
def modexp x, e, n
return 1%n if e.zero?
# k - most significant bit posistion
ee, k = e, 0
# linear search
(ee>>=1;k+=1) while ee>0
y = x
(k-2).downto(0) do |j|
y=y*y%n  # square
(y=y*x%n) if e[j] == 1 # multiply
end
y
end
__END__

Btw: do you know how to find most significant bit faster?
Sergey Volkov

doug meharry wrote:
> Greetings all.
>
> Does anyone have a clue how to use Ruby to do modular exponentiation
> using the binary left-to-right method?  I looked through the
> documentation and searched the forums and found the String.each_byte
> method.  However I had no luck finding anything showing how one might
> manipulate bits of bytes.
>
> Below is an example of what I am talking about.
>
> The calculation a = b^e mod n (or in Ruby: a = (b ** e).modulo(n) )is
> known as modular exponentiation.  One efficient method to carry this out
> on a computer is the binary left-to-right method. To solve y = x^e mod n
> let e be represented in base 2 as
>
> e = e(k-1)e(k-2)...e(1)e(0)
>
> where e(k-1) is the most significant non-zero bit and bit e(0) the
> least.
> set y = x
> for bit j = k - 2 downto 0
> begin
>   y = y * y mod n   /* square */
>   if e(j) == 1 then
>     y = y * x mod n  /* multiply */
> end
> return y
>
>
> Thanks for looking,
>
> Doug

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