Issue #15856 has been updated by lamont (Lamont Granquist).


For what its worth:

We went ahead and incorporated the prior patch into chef's shipping packages starting with Chef 15.5.9, and it will be incorporated into all our shipping products that bake in ruby (inspec, chefdk, chef workstation, supermarket, etc).

I'd like to encourage the consideration of accepting that patch for Ruby 3.0 and breaking that one use case in the ruby specs, assuming we don't turn up any issues by deploying it into "production".

----------------------------------------
Bug #15856: Idempotent performance of Kernel.require with many activated gems is slow
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/15856#change-82782

* Author: lamont (Lamont Granquist)
* Status: Assigned
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: hsbt (Hiroshi SHIBATA)
* Target version: 
* ruby -v: ruby 2.6.3p62 (2019-04-16 revision 67580) [x86_64-linux]
* Backport: 2.4: UNKNOWN, 2.5: UNKNOWN, 2.6: UNKNOWN
----------------------------------------
With many activated gems the performance of Kernel.require (aka Kernel.gem_original_require after rubygems is loaded) is very slow, even in the case where the require has already been loaded (the idempotent case).

What it looks like is happening is every time it needs to resolve the string argument to a pathname in order to compare against a cache of already loaded paths.  Since require and require_relative need to be able to share state this makes sense to do, but this becomes very expensive with lots of activated gems, particularly on windows (where open/stat on windows is 10x more expensive than on linux).

What probably needs to happen is that for require (but not require_relative which is already fairly fast) there needs to a be another layer of idempotency checking that happens which compares only the string argument in a Hash to see if the key exists or not (which I believe is likely the old way that require used to work before require_relative was introduced).  That means that on the second time a require line was processed it would find that value was true and would short circuit without doing any File I/O to resolve the filename.  Of course the first time it still would need to do the check resolve to the full path and still maintain that cache so that require and require_relative were still idempotent between them.

After doing some testing I don't think this would introduce any user-visible behavior changes, since requires lines should always be idempotent.  I thought it would fix some actual bugs in behavior but I was unable to "trick" the existing loader into double-loading a requires line even though I tried installing and activating gems after having already required system libs.  Since I couldn't find any bugs, though, that also means that this should be backwards compatible with existing behavior.

An strace of the process of a single `require "openssl"`, after it has been already required looks like this:

open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/uuidtools-2.1.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-bin-15.0.276/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/public_suffix-3.0.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/addressable-2.6.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-shellout-2.4.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-cli-2.0.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/appbundler-0.12.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/bcrypt_pbkdf-1.0.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/bcrypt_pbkdf-1.0.1/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/debug_inspector-0.0.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/debug_inspector-0.0.3/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/binding_of_caller-0.8.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/binding_of_caller-0.8.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/builder-3.2.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/byebug-11.0.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/byebug-11.0.1/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tomlrb-1.2.8/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-config-3.0.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/fuzzyurl-0.9.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-config-15.0.276/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/net-ssh-5.2.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/net-scp-2.0.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/erubis-2.7.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ffi-1.10.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/ffi-1.10.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/gssapi-1.3.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/gyoku-1.3.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/httpclient-2.8.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/little-plugger-1.1.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/multi_json-1.13.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/logging-2.2.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/nori-2.6.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rubyntlm-0.6.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/winrm-2.3.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rubyzip-1.2.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/winrm-fs-1.3.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/train-core-2.1.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/equatable-0.5.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-color-0.4.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/pastel-0.7.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-cursor-0.6.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/strings-ansi-0.1.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/unicode_utils-1.4.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/unicode-display_width-1.4.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/strings-0.1.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-box-0.3.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/necromancer-0.4.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/timers-4.3.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/wisper-2.0.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-screen-0.6.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-reader-0.5.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-prompt-0.18.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/license-acceptance-1.0.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-log-3.0.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-authentication-2.1.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/mixlib-archive-1.0.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/systemu-2.6.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/libyajl2-1.2.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/libyajl2-1.2.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ffi-yajl-2.3.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/ffi-yajl-2.3.1/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/plist-3.5.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ipaddress-0.8.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/wmi-lite-1.0.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ohai-15.0.34/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/net-ssh-multi-1.2.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/net-sftp-2.1.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ed25519-1.2.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/ed25519-1.2.4/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/highline-1.7.10/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/diff-lcs-1.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ffi-libarchive-0.4.6/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/hashie-3.6.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/uuidtools-2.1.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rack-2.0.7/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-zero-14.0.12/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/iniparse-1.4.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/syslog-logger-1.6.8/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/proxifier-1.0.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-15.0.276/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-bin-15.0.276/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/chef-vault-3.4.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/cheffish-14.0.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/coderay-1.1.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/safe_yaml-1.0.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/crack-0.4.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/docile-1.3.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/multipart-post-2.0.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/faraday-0.15.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/faraday_middleware-0.12.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/hashdiff-0.3.9/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/htmlentities-4.3.4/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/thor-0.20.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/method_source-0.9.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-support-3.8.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-core-3.8.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-expectations-3.8.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-mocks-3.8.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-3.8.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec-its-1.3.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/pry-0.12.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/sslshake-1.3.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/parallel-1.17.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/parslet-1.8.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/semverse-3.0.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tty-table-0.10.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/tins-1.20.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/term-ansicolor-1.7.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/inspec-core-4.3.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/json-2.2.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/json-2.2.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/pry-byebug-3.7.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/slop-3.6.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/pry-remote-0.1.8/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/pry-stack_explorer-0.4.9.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rake-12.3.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rb-readline-0.5.5/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/rspec_junit_formatter-0.2.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ruby-prof-0.17.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/ruby-prof-0.17.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/ruby-shadow-2.5.0/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.6.0/ruby-shadow-2.5.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/simplecov-html-0.10.2/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/simplecov-0.16.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/webmock-3.5.1/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/bundler-1.17.3/lib/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/site_ruby/2.6.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/site_ruby/2.6.0/x86_64-linux/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/site_ruby/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/2.6.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/2.6.0/x86_64-linux/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/opt/chef/embedded/lib/ruby/2.6.0/openssl.rb", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_CLOEXEC) = 7

On windows, taking this much I/O on every single require line, can quickly add up to 100,000s of open calls, which takes several seconds on an SSD and can take upwards of a minute on a spinning drive just to evaluate the requires of an application that does no work (i.e. command line tooling).



-- 
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/

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