Issue #14183 has been updated by mame (Yusuke Endoh).


Let me reboot the discussion.  The problems and some proposals are described in the slides:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/16rReiCVzUog3s5vV702LzcIFM2LNcX53AX8m5K8uCZw/edit?usp=sharing

My understanding is that Jeremy's proposal is the most prospect.  It is:

* In principle, keyword arguments and non-keyword ones are separated.
  * You need to pass keyword arguments by `foo(k: 42)` or `foo(**hash)`
  * You need to accept keyword argument by `def foo(k: 42)` or `def foo(**hash)`
  * All other arguments are considered as non-keyword arguments; `foo(hash)` is not a keyword argument.
* However, it is allowed to pass keyword arguments to a method that does not accept keyword arguments.  (Jeremy's compatibility layer)
* Non-symbol keys are allowed: `def foo(**kw); end; foo("k" => 42)`

```
# Jeremy's compatibility layer
def foo(opt = {})
  p opt
end
foo(k: 42) # {:k=>42}
```

Assuming that Ruby 3.0 will pick up Jeremy's proposal, I'd like to discuss the semantics of Ruby 2.7.  In principle, it should:

1) Warns the behavior that won't work after 3.0.
2) Reasonably run a code that is valid in 3.0 for gradual migration.

However, it is very tough to discuss it on paper.  (Actually matz, akr, and I spent a few month to discuss this issue.)

I think that Jeremy's branch is a great start.  So, @jeremyevans0 , how about merging it experimentally?  And then, if we face some actual issues, we can discuss each of them.  If you are not against, I'd like to propose the merge at the next dev-meeting.

----------------------------------------
Feature #14183: "Real" keyword argument
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14183#change-80795

* Author: mame (Yusuke Endoh)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* Target version: Next Major
----------------------------------------
In RubyWorld Conference 2017 and RubyConf 2017, Matz officially said that Ruby 3.0 will have "real" keyword arguments.  AFAIK there is no ticket about it, so I'm creating this (based on my understanding).

In Ruby 2, the keyword argument is a normal argument that is a Hash object (whose keys are all symbols) and is passed as the last argument.  This design is chosen because of compatibility, but it is fairly complex, and has been a source of many corner cases where the behavior is not intuitive.  (Some related tickets: #8040, #8316, #9898, #10856, #11236, #11967, #12104, #12717, #12821, #13336, #13647, #14130)

In Ruby 3, a keyword argument will be completely separated from normal arguments.  (Like a block parameter that is also completely separated from normal arguments.)
This change will break compatibility; if you want to pass or accept keyword argument, you always need to use bare `sym: val` or double-splat `**` syntax:

```
# The following calls pass keyword arguments
foo(..., key: val)
foo(..., **hsh)
foo(..., key: val, **hsh)

# The following calls pass **normal** arguments
foo(..., {key: val})
foo(..., hsh)
foo(..., {key: val, **hsh})

# The following method definitions accept keyword argument
def foo(..., key: val)
end
def foo(..., **hsh)
end

# The following method definitions accept **normal** argument
def foo(..., hsh)
end
```

In other words, the following programs WILL NOT work:

```
# This will cause an ArgumentError because the method foo does not accept keyword argument
def foo(a, b, c, hsh)
  p hsh[:key]
end
foo(1, 2, 3, key: 42)

# The following will work; you need to use keyword rest operator explicitly
def foo(a, b, c, **hsh)
  p hsh[:key]
end
foo(1, 2, 3, key: 42)

# This will cause an ArgumentError because the method call does not pass keyword argument
def foo(a, b, c, key: 1)
end
h = {key: 42}
foo(1, 2, 3, h)

# The following will work; you need to use keyword rest operator explicitly
def foo(a, b, c, key: 1)
end
h = {key: 42}
foo(1, 2, 3, **h)
```

I think here is a transition path:

* Ruby 2.6 (or 2.7?) will output a warning when a normal argument is interpreted as keyword argument, or vice versa.
* Ruby 3.0 will use the new semantics.

---Files--------------------------------
vm_args.diff (4.19 KB)
vm_args_v2.diff (4.18 KB)


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