Issue #15240 has been updated by Hanmac (Hans Mackowiak).


i didn't looked yet how Set is implemented, is it ruby code only or does it has some C coded parts too?

if it has C-Coded parts, i think the best way would be to:
* Check if object is real `Set`, if yes do real set stuff
* this maybe: check if object has `#each` ... like maybe iterating the objects might be faster than building a new set
* Check for `#to_set` method, if not throw Exception


I did look, it is ruby only coded, maybe Set should be moved into implemented in C?


hm i especially hate such part of code:

~~~ ruby
case
when set.instance_of?(self.class) && @hash.respond_to?(:<)
  @hash < set.instance_variable_get(:@hash)
when set.is_a?(Set)
  size < set.size && all? { |o| set.include?(o) }
else
  raise ArgumentError, "value must be a set"
end
~~~

my problem with such code is the empty case part ... it just looks ugly because it isn't better than a `if ... elseif ... else ... end` construct

----------------------------------------
Bug #15240: Set operations check for is_a?(Set), rather than allowing duck typing
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/15240#change-74559

* Author: ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* Target version: 
* ruby -v: ruby 2.5.3p105 (2018-10-18 revision 65156) [x86_64-linux]
* Backport: 2.3: UNKNOWN, 2.4: UNKNOWN, 2.5: UNKNOWN
----------------------------------------
Hello there 

Ruby's `Set`, unlike `Array` or `Hash`, cannot easily interoperate with user-created classes as several operations (`#==`, `#flatten`, `#flatten!`, `#intersect?`, `#disjoint?`, `#subset?`, `#proper_subset?`, `#superset?`, `#proper_superset?`) check that the other class `is_a?(Set)`, rather than allowing duck-typing.

Example:

```ruby
require 'set'
class MySet
  include Enumerable
  def each(&block) [:my, :set].each(&block) end
  def size() to_a.size end
end
puts Set[:set].subset?(MySet.new)

=> Traceback (most recent call last):
        1: from testcase.rb:8:in `<main>'
set.rb:292:in `subset?': value must be a set (ArgumentError)
```

The only way I've found of going around this issue and looking at the Ruby sources, is to fake a response to `is_a?`:

```ruby
require 'set'
class MySet
  include Enumerable
  def each(&block) [:my, :set].each(&block) end
  def size() to_a.size end
  def is_a?(klass) super || klass == Set end # <== Hack! 
end
puts Set[:set].subset?(MySet.new)

=> true
```

This is a very ugly hack, and instead it would be nice if, instead, I could just provide a `to_set` method that `Set` could call to allow duck typing.

I'm willing to work on a patch to solve this (would be pretty nice to do my first contribution to Ruby core!), so hopefully we can discuss how this problem can be tackled.

---

### Background / TL;DR

This issue came about as I am the creator of a gem called [persistent-](https://gitlab.com/ivoanjo/persistent-dmnd/). This gem provides immutable arrays, hashes and sets. Most of the hard work is delegated to another gem ([hamster](https://github.com/hamstergem/hamster)), but I've added a number of tweaks to allow the persistent- variants to easily interoperate with their Ruby counterparts.

Because I wanted to allow `Persistent::Set` instances to be used together with Ruby's `Set`, I studied the `set.rb` implementation and came up with the `is_a?(Set)` hack above. This works on all Ruby versions the gem supports (1.9->2.6), but broke on JRuby 9.2 when a new optimized `Set` implementation was added, that did not do the `is_a?(Set)` check and thus broke the hack.

I've brought up this issue with the JRuby developers -- <https://github.com/jruby/jruby/issues/5227> -- and from there we moved the discussion to ruby/spec -- <https://github.com/ruby/spec/pull/629>.

We ended up concluding that it would make sense to raise this on the Ruby tracker as something that should be fixed on `Set` itself, rather than codifying this hack as something that Ruby is expected to support.

Since Ruby sets already support an implicit conversion method -- `to_set` -- it seems natural to replace the `is_a?(Set)` with some kind of `other.respond_to?(:to_set) && other = other.to_set` in all places where the `is_a?(Set)` was being used. Note that his would be all that's needed to be able to use a `Set` duck-type --- the [`Persistent::Set` specs](https://gitlab.com/ivoanjo/persistent-dmnd/blob/master/spec/unit/set_spec.rb) are a pretty good proof of it.

Thanks for the time , and rock on !



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