Issue #14183 has been updated by jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans).


To give an example of how much code this would break, let's use Redmine as an example, since it runs this bug tracker.  For simplicity, let's limit our analysis to the use of a single method, ActiveRecord's `where` method.  ActiveRecord's `where` method uses the following API (note, no keyword arguments):

~~~ ruby
def where(opts = :chain, *rest)
  # ...
end
~~~

`where` is used at least 597 times in 180 files in the application, and most of these cases appear to be calls to the ActiveRecord `where` method.  In at least 399 cases, it appears to use an inline hash argument without braces (there are additional cases where ruby 1.9 hash syntax is used), and in 11 cases it uses an inline hash argument with braces:

~~~
$ fgrep -r .where\( !(public|doc|extra) |wc -l
     597
$ fgrep -lr .where\( !(public|doc|extra) |wc -l
     180
$ fgrep -r .where\( !(public|doc|extra) | fgrep '=>' | fgrep 'where(:' |wc -l
     399
$ fgrep -r .where\( !(public|doc|extra) | fgrep 'where({' |wc -l
      11
~~~

Examples of `where` usage:

~~~ ruby
# Inline hash without braces
@time_entries = TimeEntry.where(:id => params[:ids]).

# Inline hash with braces
Enumeration.where({:type => type}).update_all({:is_default => false})

# Noninline hash
condition_hash = self.class.positioned_options[:scope].inject({}) do |h, column|
  h[column] = yield(column)
  h
end
self.class.where(condition_hash)
~~~

Hopefully this serves an example of how much code this would break.  Remember, this is only looking at a single method. Note that omitting the braces for hashes is almost 40x more common than including the braces.

Dropping support for braceless hashes would probably break the majority of ruby applications and libraries.  Consider this another plea to limit behavior changes to methods that accept keyword arguments.

----------------------------------------
Feature #14183: "Real" keyword argument
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14183#change-73813

* Author: mame (Yusuke Endoh)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* Target version: Next Major
----------------------------------------
In RubyWorld Conference 2017 and RubyConf 2017, Matz officially said that Ruby 3.0 will have "real" keyword arguments.  AFAIK there is no ticket about it, so I'm creating this (based on my understanding).

In Ruby 2, the keyword argument is a normal argument that is a Hash object (whose keys are all symbols) and is passed as the last argument.  This design is chosen because of compatibility, but it is fairly complex, and has been a source of many corner cases where the behavior is not intuitive.  (Some related tickets: #8040, #8316, #9898, #10856, #11236, #11967, #12104, #12717, #12821, #13336, #13647, #14130)

In Ruby 3, a keyword argument will be completely separated from normal arguments.  (Like a block parameter that is also completely separated from normal arguments.)
This change will break compatibility; if you want to pass or accept keyword argument, you always need to use bare `sym: val` or double-splat `**` syntax:

```
# The following calls pass keyword arguments
foo(..., key: val)
foo(..., **hsh)
foo(..., key: val, **hsh)

# The following calls pass **normal** arguments
foo(..., {key: val})
foo(..., hsh)
foo(..., {key: val, **hsh})

# The following method definitions accept keyword argument
def foo(..., key: val)
end
def foo(..., **hsh)
end

# The following method definitions accept **normal** argument
def foo(..., hsh)
end
```

In other words, the following programs WILL NOT work:

```
# This will cause an ArgumentError because the method foo does not accept keyword argument
def foo(a, b, c, hsh)
  p hsh[:key]
end
foo(1, 2, 3, key: 42)

# The following will work; you need to use keyword rest operator explicitly
def foo(a, b, c, **hsh)
  p hsh[:key]
end
foo(1, 2, 3, key: 42)

# This will cause an ArgumentError because the method call does not pass keyword argument
def foo(a, b, c, key: 1)
end
h = {key: 42}
foo(1, 2, 3, h)

# The following will work; you need to use keyword rest operator explicitly
def foo(a, b, c, key: 1)
end
h = {key: 42}
foo(1, 2, 3, **h)
```

I think here is a transition path:

* Ruby 2.6 (or 2.7?) will output a warning when a normal argument is interpreted as keyword argument, or vice versa.
* Ruby 3.0 will use the new semantics.



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