Issue #14912 has been updated by ktsj (Kazuki Tsujimoto).


shyouhei-san:
I changed my mind. We should be able to avoid such "fragile" case.
Though duck typing is important, it should be designed by another approach.


akr-san:
> I think Ruby's pattern matching should support this style.

I agree, but it isn't enough.
I expect that Ruby's pattern matching also lets us write following code.

~~~ruby
module URI
  def deconstruct
    {scheme: scheme, host: host, ...}
  end
end

case URI('http://example.com')
in scheme: 'http', host:
  ...
end
~~~

~~~ruby
class Cell
  def deconstruct
    @cdr ? [@car] + @cdr.deconstruct : [@car]
  end
  ...
end

list = Cell[1, Cell[2, Cell[3, nil]]]
case list
in 1, 2, 3
  ...
end
~~~

---

So, how about an idea which divides deconstructing pattern into typed and non-typed one?

~~~
pat:: pat, ...       # (Non-typed) deconstructing pattern
      val(pat, ...)  # Typed deconstructing pattern. It matches an object such that `obj.kind_of?(val)` and `pat, ...` matches `obj.deconstruct`
      [pat, ...]     # Syntactic sugar of `Array(pat, ...)`. (if needed)
      {id: pat, ...} # Syntactic sugar of `Hash(id: pat, ...)`. (if needed)
~~~

~~~ruby
class Struct
  alias deconstruct values
end

A = Struct.new(:a, :b)

def m(obj)
  case obj
  in A(a, b)
    :first
  in a, b
    :second
  end
end

m(A[1, 2]) #=> :first
m([1, 2])  #=> :second
~~~


----------------------------------------
Feature #14912: Introduce pattern matching syntax
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14912#change-73166

* Author: ktsj (Kazuki Tsujimoto)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* Target version: 
----------------------------------------
I propose new pattern matching syntax.

# Pattern syntax
Here's a summary of pattern syntax.

```
# case version
case expr
in pat [if|unless cond]
  ...
in pat [if|unless cond]
  ...
else
  ...
end

pat: var                                                   # Variable pattern. It matches any value, and binds the variable name to that value.
   | literal                                               # Value pattern. The pattern matches an object such that pattern === object.
   | Constant                                              # Ditto.
   | var_                                                  # Ditto. It is equivalent to pin operator in Elixir.
   | (pat, ..., *var, pat, ..., id:, id: pat, ..., **var)  # Deconstructing pattern. See below for more details.
   | pat(pat, ...)                                         # Ditto. Syntactic sugar of (pat, pat, ...).
   | pat, ...                                              # Ditto. You can omit the parenthesis (top-level only). 
   | pat | pat | ...                                       # Alternative pattern. The pattern matches if any of pats match.
   | pat => var                                            # As pattern. Bind the variable to the value if pat match.

# one-liner version
$(pat, ...) = expr                                         # Deconstructing pattern.
```

The patterns are run in sequence until the first one that matches.
If no pattern matches and no else clause, NoMatchingPatternError exception is raised.

## Deconstructing pattern
This is similar to Extractor in Scala.

The patten matches if:

* An object have #deconstruct method
* Return value of #deconstruct method must be Array or Hash, and it matches sub patterns of this

```
class Array
  alias deconstruct itself
end

case [1, 2, 3, d: 4, e: 5, f: 6]
in a, *b, c, d:, e: Integer | Float => i, **f
  p a #=> 1
  p b #=> [2]
  p c #=> 3
  p d #=> 4
  p i #=> 5
  p f #=> {f: 6}
  e   #=> NameError
end
```

This pattern can be used as one-liner version like destructuring assignment.

```
class Hash
  alias deconstruct itself
end

$(x:, y: (_, z)) = {x: 0, y: [1, 2]}
p x #=> 0
p z #=> 2
```

# Sample code
```
class Struct
  def deconstruct; [self] + values; end
end

A = Struct.new(:a, :b)
case A[0, 1]
in (A, 1, 1)
  :not_match
in A(x, 1) # Syntactic sugar of above
  p x #=> 0
end
```

```
require 'json'

$(x:, y: (_, z)) = JSON.parse('{"x": 0, "y": [1, 2]}', symbolize_names: true)
p x #=> 0
p z #=> 2
```

# Implementation
* https://github.com/k-tsj/ruby/tree/pm2.7-prototype
   * Test code: https://github.com/k-tsj/ruby/blob/pm2.7-prototype/test_syntax.rb

# Design policy
* Keep compatibility
   * Don't define new reserved words
   * 0 conflict in parse.y. It passes test/test-all
* Be Ruby-ish
   * Powerful Array, Hash support
   * Encourage duck typing style
   * etc
* Optimize syntax for major use case
   * You can see several real use cases of pattern matching at following links :)
      * https://github.com/k-tsj/power_assert/blob/8e9e0399a032936e3e3f3c1f06e0d038565f8044/lib/power_assert.rb#L106
      * https://github.com/k-tsj/pattern-match/network/dependents




-- 
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/

Unsubscribe: <mailto:ruby-core-request / ruby-lang.org?subject=unsubscribe>
<http://lists.ruby-lang.org/cgi-bin/mailman/options/ruby-core>