Issue #14912 has been updated by egi (Satoshi Egi).


Let me propose you to import the functions for non-linear pattern matching with backtracking that I have implemented as a Ruby gem in the following repository.

https://github.com/egison/egison-ruby/

This pattern-matching system allows programmers to replace the nested for loops and conditional branches into simple pattern-match expressions (Please see README of the above GitHub repository).

It achieved that by fulfilling all the following features.

- Efficiency of the backtracking algorithm for non-linear patterns
- Extensibility of pattern matching
- Polymorphisim in patterns

There are no other programming languages that support all the above features (especially the first and second features) though many works exist for pattern matching (as listed up in the following the link: https://ghc.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/ViewPatterns).
Therefore, if Ruby has this pattern-matching facility, it will be a great advantage even over advanced programming languages such as Haskell.

----------------------------------------
Feature #14912: Introduce pattern matching syntax
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14912#change-73090

* Author: ktsj (Kazuki Tsujimoto)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* Target version: 
----------------------------------------
I propose new pattern matching syntax.

# Pattern syntax
Here's a summary of pattern syntax.

```
# case version
case expr
in pat [if|unless cond]
  ...
in pat [if|unless cond]
  ...
else
  ...
end

pat: var                                                   # Variable pattern. It matches any value, and binds the variable name to that value.
   | literal                                               # Value pattern. The pattern matches an object such that pattern === object.
   | Constant                                              # Ditto.
   | var_                                                  # Ditto. It is equivalent to pin operator in Elixir.
   | (pat, ..., *var, pat, ..., id:, id: pat, ..., **var)  # Deconstructing pattern. See below for more details.
   | pat(pat, ...)                                         # Ditto. Syntactic sugar of (pat, pat, ...).
   | pat, ...                                              # Ditto. You can omit the parenthesis (top-level only). 
   | pat | pat | ...                                       # Alternative pattern. The pattern matches if any of pats match.
   | pat => var                                            # As pattern. Bind the variable to the value if pat match.

# one-liner version
$(pat, ...) = expr                                         # Deconstructing pattern.
```

The patterns are run in sequence until the first one that matches.
If no pattern matches and no else clause, NoMatchingPatternError exception is raised.

## Deconstructing pattern
This is similar to Extractor in Scala.

The patten matches if:

* An object have #deconstruct method
* Return value of #deconstruct method must be Array or Hash, and it matches sub patterns of this

```
class Array
  alias deconstruct itself
end

case [1, 2, 3, d: 4, e: 5, f: 6]
in a, *b, c, d:, e: Integer | Float => i, **f
  p a #=> 1
  p b #=> [2]
  p c #=> 3
  p d #=> 4
  p i #=> 5
  p f #=> {f: 6}
  e   #=> NameError
end
```

This pattern can be used as one-liner version like destructuring assignment.

```
class Hash
  alias deconstruct itself
end

$(x:, y: (_, z)) = {x: 0, y: [1, 2]}
p x #=> 0
p z #=> 2
```

# Sample code
```
class Struct
  def deconstruct; [self] + values; end
end

A = Struct.new(:a, :b)
case A[0, 1]
in (A, 1, 1)
  :not_match
in A(x, 1) # Syntactic sugar of above
  p x #=> 0
end
```

```
require 'json'

$(x:, y: (_, z)) = JSON.parse('{"x": 0, "y": [1, 2]}', symbolize_names: true)
p x #=> 0
p z #=> 2
```

# Implementation
* https://github.com/k-tsj/ruby/tree/pm2.7-prototype
   * Test code: https://github.com/k-tsj/ruby/blob/pm2.7-prototype/test_syntax.rb

# Design policy
* Keep compatibility
   * Don't define new reserved words
   * 0 conflict in parse.y. It passes test/test-all
* Be Ruby-ish
   * Powerful Array, Hash support
   * Encourage duck typing style
   * etc
* Optimize syntax for major use case
   * You can see several real use cases of pattern matching at following links :)
      * https://github.com/k-tsj/power_assert/blob/8e9e0399a032936e3e3f3c1f06e0d038565f8044/lib/power_assert.rb#L106
      * https://github.com/k-tsj/pattern-match/network/dependents




-- 
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/

Unsubscribe: <mailto:ruby-core-request / ruby-lang.org?subject=unsubscribe>
<http://lists.ruby-lang.org/cgi-bin/mailman/options/ruby-core>