Issue #12676 has been updated by Jabari Zakiya.


Thanks for your explanation. I understood (after looking at the source code) what was being done,
and how it was being done, but from a user perspective I was inquiring *why* it was being done that way.

Also purely from a user perspective, the method name `prime_factors` is much clearer and intuitive than
`prime_division`. It says what the method will produce and not what it's doing.

```
this:   47824821.prime_factors   is intuitively clearer than this:   47824821.prime_division
```

I suggest at least aliasing this for >= Ruby 2.4 because Ruby 3 will have backward incompatibiities anyway,
and since I would imagine `prime.rb` is not used by a whole lot of people, creating at least an alias
puts the name on a conceptually better foundation of what user would expect. Looking in code and seeing
the use of `n.prime_factors` is just so much clearer.

Finally, if you don't want to directly `require openssl` you can still use the technique that uses a fast `prime?` method.

You can paste the code below directly into an irb session (or load from a file).

I created two versions of `prime_factors`, one using `prime?` from `openssl` and the other using the upgraded `prime?`
method from the current trunk code for `prime.rb` (Thanks, again, for incorporating my suggestion for it into trunk.)

https://github.com/ruby/ruby/blob/trunk/lib/prime.rb

For the randomly choseen 27 digit integer shown `prime_division` takes twice as much time as `prime_factors`
and `prime_factors1`, because half its time (21 sec) is used to perform trial division on the last|largest prime.

Thus, using this technique enables the code to be greatly simplified (conceptually and in locs) while significantly
increasing speed, in this case 2x faster. However, `prime_factors` is still 7x slower, and needs more total code,
than `prime_division9` (from previous post) which is still the better method, especially to deal with large primes.

I present this to note and demonstrate you can apply this technique within the existing codebase to make
prime factorization faster, simpler to code, and easier to upgrade by using a faster generator or `prime?` method.
(In my `primes-utils` gem I use a Miller-Rabin primality test method, but to uses the `openssl` method ` mod_exp(n,m)`.
This just reinforces the fact that `openssl` math methods are very useful|fast for working with arbitrary sized numbers.)

```
require 'prime.rb'
require 'openssl'

class Integer
  
  def prime?
    return self >= 2 if self <= 3
    return true if self == 5
    return false unless 30.gcd(self) == 1
    (7..Math.sqrt(self).to_i).step(30) do |p|
      return false
        self%(p)    == 0 || self%(p+4)  == 0 || self%(p+6)  == 0 || self%(p+10) == 0 ||
        self%(p+12) == 0 || self%(p+16) == 0 || self%(p+22) == 0 || self%(p+24) == 0
    end
    true
  end

  def prime_factors(generator = Prime::Generator23.new)
    return [] if self | 1 == 1
    pv = self < 0 ? [-1] : []
    value  = self.abs
    prime = generator.next
    until value.to_bn.prime? or value == 1
      while prime 
        (pv << prime; value /= prime; break) if value % prime == 0
        prime = generator.next
      end
    end
    pv << value if value > 1
    pv.group_by {|prm| prm }.map{|prm, exp| [prm, exp.size] }
  end
  
  
  def prime_factors1(generator = Prime::Generator23.new)
    return [] if self | 1 == 1
    pv = self < 0 ? [-1] : []
    value  = self.abs
    prime = generator.next
    until value.prime? or value == 1
      while prime 
        (pv << prime; value /= prime; break) if value % prime == 0
        prime = generator.next
      end
    end
    pv << value if value > 1
    pv.group_by {|prm| prm }.map{|prm, exp| [prm, exp.size] }
  end
end
```

```
System: System76 laptop; I7 3.5GHz cpu

> n = 500000000000000000008244213; n.to_s.size
=> 27

> n = 500000000000000000008244213; n.prime_factors
=> [[3623, 1], [61283, 1], [352117631, 1], [6395490847, 1]]

n.prime_division     42.61 secs
n.prime_factors1     23.43 secs
n.prime_factors      21.05 secs
n.prime_division9     3.35 secs
```


----------------------------------------
Feature #12676: Significant performance increase, and code conciseness, for prime_division method in prime.rb
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/12676#change-60807

* Author: Jabari Zakiya
* Status: Assigned
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: Marc-Andre Lafortune
----------------------------------------
I earlier posted code to simplify the prime_division method in prime.rb.
This made the code much more concise and readable/understandable, while
also providing a small speed increase.

The code presented here for prime_division2 maintains the conciseness and
readability, but uses a different/simpler algorithm to provide a significant
speed increase over the current implementation of prime_division in prime.rb.

Timings for selected large primes are provided, run on CRuby 2.3.1.
System: System76 3.5GHz I7 cpu laptop, Linux 64-bit OS in Virtual Box.


```
n1 =   100_000_000_000_000_003
n2 =   200_000_000_000_000_003
n3 = 1_000_000_000_000_000_003

                       n1         n2         n3
prime_division        23.7       33.5       74.6
prime_division1       22.9       32.2       72.8
prime_division2       14.8       20.5       45.8
```
```ruby
def tm; s = Time.now; yield; Time.now - s end

irb(main):015:0> n =   100_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division }
=> 23.730239721
irb(main):016:0> n =   100_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division1 }
=> 22.877657172
irb(main):017:0> n =   100_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division2 }
=> 14.758561827

irb(main):018:0> n =   200_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division }
=> 33.502851342
irb(main):019:0> n =   200_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division1 }
=> 32.23911595
irb(main):020:0> n =   200_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division2 }
=> 20.476660683

irb(main):021:0> n = 1_000_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division }
=> 74.630244055
irb(main):022:0> n = 1_000_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division1 }
=> 72.778948947
irb(main):023:0> n = 1_000_000_000_000_000_003; tm{ n.prime_division2 }
=> 45.802756121
```

1. Current code for prime_division in prime.rb.

    ```ruby
    def prime_division(value, generator = Prime::Generator23.new)
      raise ZeroDivisionError if value == 0
      if value < 0
        value = -value
        pv = [[-1, 1]]
      else
        pv = []
      end
      generator.each do |prime|
        count = 0
        while (value1, mod = value.divmod(prime)
               mod) == 0
          value = value1
          count += 1
        end
        if count != 0
          pv.push [prime, count]
        end
        break if value1 <= prime
      end
      if value > 1
        pv.push [value, 1]
      end
      pv
    end
    ```

2. Code simplification for current algorithm, increases conciseness/readability, with slight speedup.

    ```ruby
    def prime_division1(value, generator = Prime::Generator23.new)
      raise ZeroDivisionError if value == 0
      pv = value < 0 ? [[-1, 1]] : []
      value = value.abs
      generator.each do |prime|
        count = 0
        while (value1, mod = value.divmod(prime); mod) == 0
          value = value1
          count += 1
        end
        pv.push [prime, count] unless count == 0
        break if prime > value1
      end
      pv.push [value, 1] if value > 1
      pv
    end
    ```

3. Change of algorithm, maintains conciseness/readability with significant speed increase.

    ```ruby
    def prime_division2(value, generator = Prime::Generator23.new)
      raise ZeroDivisionError if value == 0
      pv = value < 0 ? [-1] : []
      value  = value.abs
      sqrt_value = Math.sqrt(value).to_i
      generator.each do |prime|
        break if prime > sqrt_value
        while value % prime == 0
          pv << prime
          value /= prime
          sqrt_value = Math.sqrt(value).to_i
        end
      end
      pv << value if value > 1
      pv.group_by {|prm| prm }.map{|prm, exp| [prm, exp.size] }
    end
    ```




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