Issue #9580 has been updated by George Koehler.

Backport deleted (1.9.3: UNKNOWN, 2.0.0: UNKNOWN, 2.1: UNKNOWN)

In ruby 2.4.0dev, top-level refinements still don't work in IRB. Now I get a RuntimeError when using them:

~~~
$ cat big.rb
module Big
  refine(Numeric) do
    def hundred
      self * 100
    end
  end
end
$ ruby -v
ruby 2.4.0dev (2016-05-19 trunk 55066) [x86_64-openbsd5.9]
$ irb -I. -rbig
irb(main):001:0> using Big
RuntimeError: main.using is permitted only at toplevel
        from (irb):1:in `using'
        from (irb):1
        from /home/kernigh/prefix/bin/irb:11:in `<main>'
~~~

This is a problem with the Binding object that IRB uses to evaluate my code. If I create my own Binding object in a place that allows using refinements, then it works:

~~~
irb(main):002:0> b = module Dummy; binding; end
=> #<Binding:0x001779c844dc80>
irb(main):003:0> b.eval('using Big')
=> Dummy
irb(main):004:0> b.eval('5.hundred')
=> 500
~~~

I looked at IRB's code to check how it creates the binding. I noticed that IRB has an option --context-mode or IRB.conf[:CONTEXT_MODE]. The default is --context-mode=3 where refinements don't work. If I change it to 0, 1, or 2, then refinements work:

~~~
$ irb -I. -rbig --context-mode=1
irb(main):001:0> using Big
=> main
irb(main):002:0> 5.hundred
=> 500
~~~

When --context-mode=0 then the backtraces from exceptions are too long. (Type `fail` at IRB prompt to see the backtrace.) So I prefer to use --context-mode=1 because it has working refinements and short backtraces. I now put `IRB.conf[:CONTEXT_MODE] = 1` in my ~/.irbrc for working refinements.

The bug here is that IRB doesn't allow using refinements by default. We should change the default context mode to allow using refinements.

----------------------------------------
Bug #9580: Refinements regression in IRB
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/9580#change-58739

* Author: David Albert
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
* Assignee: 
* ruby -v: 2.2.0dev
* Backport: 
----------------------------------------
The problem: Top level refinements do not work in IRB. They worked in 2.0.0-p451, but don't work in 2.1.0, 2.1.1, or today's trunk.

Details:

Here some code in a file:

    #refine.rb
    
    module A
      refine String do
        def asdf
          :asdf
        end
      end
    end
    
    using A
    
    p "foo".asdf
    
In all versions, of Ruby between 2.0.0-p451 and 2.2.0dev, running this file, prints `:asdf`. This is the expected behavior. Ruby 2.0.0 also prints the "Refinements are experimental" warning, as expected:

    # Ruby 2.0.0-p451
    $ ruby refine.rb 
    refine.rb:2: warning: Refinements are experimental, and the behavior may change in future versions of Ruby!
    :asdf

    # Ruby 2.1.0, 2.1.1, and 2.2.0dev
    $ ruby refine.rb 
    :asdf


In Ruby 2.0.0-p451, the same code also works in IRB, also as expected:

    irb(main):001:0> "#{RUBY_VERSION}-#{RUBY_PATCHLEVEL}"
    => "2.0.0-451"
    irb(main):002:0> module A
    irb(main):003:1>   refine String do
    irb(main):004:2*     def asdf
    irb(main):005:3>       :asdf
    irb(main):006:3>     end
    irb(main):007:2>   end
    irb(main):008:1> end
    (irb):3: warning: Refinements are experimental, and the behavior may change in future versions of Ruby!
    => #<refinement:String@A>
    irb(main):009:0> using A
    => main
    irb(main):010:0> "foo".asdf
    => :asdf

However, in all newer versions of Ruby (2.1.0, 2.1.1, and 2.2.0dev), this code raises a `NoMethodError` in IRB:

    irb(main):001:0> RUBY_VERSION
    => "2.1.0"
    irb(main):002:0> module A
    irb(main):003:1>   refine String do
    irb(main):004:2*     def asdf
    irb(main):005:3>       :asdf
    irb(main):006:3>     end
    irb(main):007:2>   end
    irb(main):008:1> end
    => #<refinement:String@A>
    irb(main):009:0> using A
    => main
    irb(main):010:0> "foo".asdf
    NoMethodError: undefined method `asdf' for "foo":String
    	from (irb):10
    	from out/bin/irb:11:in `<main>'


    irb(main):001:0> RUBY_VERSION
    => "2.1.1"
    irb(main):002:0> module A
    irb(main):003:1>   refine String do
    irb(main):004:2*     def asdf
    irb(main):005:3>       :asdf
    irb(main):006:3>     end
    irb(main):007:2>   end
    irb(main):008:1> end
    => #<refinement:String@A>
    irb(main):009:0> using A
    => main
    irb(main):010:0> "foo".asdf
    NoMethodError: undefined method `asdf' for "foo":String
    	from (irb):10
    	from bin/irb:11:in `<main>'


    irb(main):001:0> RUBY_VERSION
    => "2.2.0"
    irb(main):002:0> module A
    irb(main):003:1>   refine String do
    irb(main):004:2*     def asdf
    irb(main):005:3>       :asdf
    irb(main):006:3>     end
    irb(main):007:2>   end
    irb(main):008:1> end
    => #<refinement:String@A>
    irb(main):009:0> using A
    => main
    irb(main):010:0> "foo".asdf
    NoMethodError: undefined method `asdf' for "foo":String
    	from (irb):10
    	from bin/irb:11:in `<main>'

This seems like a bug because the code behaves differently in IRB than how it behaves in the file. If it's the intended behavior, it's frustrating because it makes it harder to prototype code that uses refinements in the REPL.

This issue is not specific to IRB. I get the same behavior in Pry (works in 2.0.0, doesn't work in newer Ruby versions). This makes me think the issue is not inside the IRB source, but rather has something to do with `using`'s behavior in the `Binding` objects that IRB and Pry are probably using. I haven't looked at the Pry or IRB source in quite a long time, so this paragraph is mostly speculation.

Please let me know if there's any more info I can provide to make this easier to fix



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