Issue #17795 has been updated by Dan0042 (Daniel DeLorme).


> Most database clients, ORMs or other libraries keeping a connection pool might need to close connections before the fork happens.

Am I missing something? Afaik the proper way to do this is to close the connection _after_ the fork. Of course if you do it before the fork it will work, but then the parent must reconnect, not to mention it aborts any transaction in progress. Maybe there's some confusion because a "full" disconnect in this child will send a disconnection message to the DB server, which will then close its connection and cause a lost connection in the parent process. But as long as you just disconnect the DB _socket_ in the child without doing the full disconnection thing, the DB connection will keep working just fine in the parent.

> Unfortunately `Process.pid` is relatively slow on Linux

I did a benchmark on my Linux machine (Linux ubuntu 4.4.0-206-generic) and `$$` is the same speed as `1==1`. `Process.pid` is only marginally slower. I'd like to know where the idea that it's slow is coming from.

> Make Kernel.fork a delegator

This works great for before_fork, but after_fork needs to handle both the with-block and without-block forms. So everyone who justs want an after_fork hook will need to write some boilerplate code like below. So it seems to me this is not such a nice API.

```ruby
def fork(*a, **kw, &b)
  if block_given?
    super(*a, **kw) do
      after_fork
      yield
    end
  else
    pid=super
    after_fork if !pid
    pid
  end
end
```


----------------------------------------
Feature #17795: `before_fork` and `after_fork` callback API
https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17795#change-91496

* Author: byroot (Jean Boussier)
* Status: Open
* Priority: Normal
----------------------------------------
Replaces: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/5446

### Context

Ruby code in production is very often running in a forking setup (puma, unicorn, etc), and it is common some types of libraries to need to know when the Ruby process was forked. For instance:

  - Most database clients, ORMs or other libraries keeping a connection pool might need to close connections before the fork happens.
  - Libraries relying on some kind of dispatcher thread might need to restart the thread in the forked children, and clear any internal buffer (e.g. statsd clients, newrelic_rpm).

**This need is only for forking the whole ruby process, extensions doing a `fork(2) + exec(2)` combo etc are not a concern, this aim at only catching `kernel.fork`, `Process.fork` and maybe `Process.daemon`.**.
The use case is for forks that end up executing Ruby code.

### Current solutions

Right now this use case is handled in several ways.

#### Rely on the integrating code to call a `before_fork` or `after_fork` callback.

Some libraries simply rely on documentation and require the user to use the hooks provided by their forking server.

Examples:

  - Sequel: http://sequel.jeremyevans.net/rdoc/files/doc/fork_safety_rdoc.html
  - Rails's Active Record: https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/concurrency-and-database-connections#multi-process-servers
  - ScoutAPM (it tries to detect popular forking setup and register itself): https://github.com/scoutapp/scout_apm_ruby/blob/fa83793b9e8d2f9a32c920f59b57d7f198f466b8/lib/scout_apm/environment.rb#L142-L146
  - NewRelic RPM (similarly tries to register to popular forking setups): https://www.rubydoc.info/github/newrelic/rpm/NewRelic%2FAgent:after_fork


#### Continuously check `Process.pid`

Some libraries chose to instead keep the process PID in a variable, and to regularly compare it to `Process.pid` to detect forked children.
Unfortunately `Process.pid` is relatively slow on Linux, and these checks tend to be in tight loops, so it's not uncommon when using these libraries
to spend `1` or `2%` of runtime in `Process.pid`.

Examples:

  - Rails's Active Record used to check `Process.pid` https://github.com/Shopify/rails/blob/411ccbdab2608c62aabdb320d52cb02d446bb39c/activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/connection_pool.rb#L946, it still does but a bit less: https://github.com/rails/rails/pull/41850
  - the `Typhoeus` HTTP client: https://github.com/typhoeus/typhoeus/blob/a345545e5e4ac0522b883fe0cf19e5e2e807b4b0/lib/typhoeus/pool.rb#L34-L42
  - Redis client: https://github.com/redis/redis-rb/blob/6542934f01b9c390ee450bd372209a04bc3a239b/lib/redis/client.rb#L384
  - Some older versions of NewRelic RPM: https://github.com/opendna/scoreranking-api/blob/8fba96d23b4d3e6b64f625079c184f3a292bbc12/vendor/gems/ruby/1.9.1/gems/newrelic_rpm-3.7.3.204/lib/new_relic/agent/harvester.rb#L39-L41

#### Continuously check `Thread#alive?`

Similar to checking `Process.pid`, but for the background thread use case. `Thread#alive?` is regularly checked, and if the thread is dead, it is assumed that the process was forked.
It's much less costly than a `Process.pid`, but also a bit less reliable as the thread could have died for other reasons. It also delays re-creating the thread to the next check rather than immediately upon forking.

Examples:

  - `statsd-instrument`: https://github.com/Shopify/statsd-instrument/blob/0445cca46e29aa48e9f1efec7c72352aff7ec931/lib/statsd/instrument/batched_udp_sink.rb#L63

#### Decorate `Kernel.fork` and `Process.fork`

Another solution is to prepend a module in `Process` and `Kernel`, to decorate the fork method and implement your own callback. It works well, but is made difficult by `Kernel.fork`.


Examples:

  - Active Support: https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/9aed3dcdfea6b64c18035f8e2622c474ba499846/activesupport/lib/active_support/fork_tracker.rb
  - `dd-trace-rb`: https://github.com/DataDog/dd-trace-rb/blob/793946146b4709289cfd459f3b68e8227a9f5fa7/lib/ddtrace/profiling/ext/forking.rb
  - To some extent, `nakayoshi_fork` decorates the `fork` method: https://github.com/ko1/nakayoshi_fork/blob/19ef5efc51e0ae51d7f5f37a0b785309bf16e97f/lib/nakayoshi_fork.rb

### Proposals

I see two possible features to improve this situation:

#### `Process.before_fork` and `Process.after_fork` callbacks

One solution would be for Ruby to expose a callback API for these two events, similar to `Kernel.at_exit`.

#### Make `Kernel.fork` a delegator

A simpler change would be to just make `Kernel.fork` a delegator to `Process.fork`. This would make it much easier to prepend a module on `Process` for each library to implement its own callback.

Proposed patch: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/4361



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